We are your best choice for exploring the Mexican volcanos. We can serve all levels of mountaineering and give you an enjoyable and unforgettable experience. Our mountain guides have the experience and knowledge of the Mexican volcanos to ensure your safe and successful ascent, our first priorities. We have a growing number of happy and satisfied summiteers..come and enjoy the outdoors with us! In addition, we share our culture and history on all of our
trips...so, “Andale, andale!!”
Mexico General Information
Population 2019 estimate 126,577,691
Capital: -Mexico City- (CDMX)
Density 61/km2 (158.0/sq mi) (142nd)
GEOGRAPHY: Mexico is at the southern extremity of North America and is bounded to the north by the USA, northwest by the Gulf of California, west by the Pacific, south by Guatemala and Belize, and east by the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean. Mexico’s geographical features range from swamp to desert, and from tropical lowland jungle to high alpine vegetation. Over half the country has an altitude above 1000m (3300ft). The central land mass is a plateau flanked by ranges of mountains to the east and west that lie roughly parallel to the coast. The northern area of this plateau is arid and thinly populated, and occupies 40 per cent of the total area of Mexico. The southern area is crossed by a range of volcanic mountains running from Cape Corrientes in the west through the Valley of Mexico to Veracruz in the east, and includes the magnificent volcanoes of Cofre de Perote, Ixtaccíhuatl, Matlalcueyetl, Nevado de Toluca, Orizaba and Popocatépetl. This is the heart of Mexico and where almost half of the population lives. To the south, the land falls away to the sparsely populated Isthmus of Tehuantepec whose slopes and flatlands support both commercial and subsistence agriculture. In the east, the Gulf Coast and the Yucatán peninsula are flat and receive over 75 per cent of Mexico’s rain. The most productive agricultural region in Mexico is the northwest, while the Gulf Coast produces most of Mexico’s oil and sulphur. Along the northwest coast, opposite the peninsula of Baja California, and to the southeast along the coast of Bahía de Campeche and the Yucatán peninsula, the lowlands are swampy with coastal lagoons.
Government: Republic since 1917. Gained independence from Spain in 1821. Head of State and Government: President Vicente Fox Quesada since 2000.
Language: Spanish is the official language. English is widely spoken.
Religion: Ninety per cent Roman Catholic.
Time: Mexico spans three different time zones:
Electricity: 110 volts AC, 60Hz. US two-pin (flat) plugs are usual.
Telephone: IDD is available. Country code: 52. Outgoing international code: 00. Long-distance calls are very expensive.
Mobile telephone: AMPS network is operated by IUSACELL. GSM 1900 network
y Telegrafos Nacionales and international telegrams should be handed in to their offices.
Press: The major daily newspapers published in Spanish are El Heraldo de México, El Universal, Esto, Excélsior, La Prensa and Reforma. The English-language papers available are Mexico City Times, New York Times, The News and USA Today.
History: Mexico’s earliest known civilisation was the Olmec in the second century BC, which reached its height about 1200 BC. The Olmec (meaning ‘people from the rubber country’) were an advanced Mayan culture in religion, architecture and mathematical systems. By AD 500, two great cities had emerged, Teotihuacan (with a population of approximately 200,000) and Cholula, a religious centre near Puebla that survived until the Spanish Conquest in 1521. The height of Mayan civilisation was reached between AD 600-900.
The Toltecs, whose capital was Tula, were the predominant civilisation of this time. Known for their fine architecture, elegant speech and intellectual pursuits, they were the ancestors of the famous Aztecs who were thriving at the time Columbus arrived in the New World in 1492. In 1519, a Spaniard named Hernan Cortés arrived from Cuba with a crew of 550 sailors and explorers and settled just north of today’s city of Veracruz. By this time, the Aztec Empire controlled vast territories from the Yucatán peninsula to the Pacific, with over 370 individual nations under their authority. Ruling from their capital city, Tenochtitlan, the Aztecs demanded heavy tribute from their subjects, which may have caused some to side with Cortés in his attack on the Aztecs.
The other factor on Cortés’ side was the lucky coincidence that 1519 was the exact year when legend had it that the Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl, had promised his followers he would return from the east and so Cortés was mistaken for a god. After two years of fighting and great loss of life on both sides, the Aztecs were defeated under their final ruler, Cuauhtemoc. Under Spanish rule, local culture was suppressed and native traditions were discouraged.
A series of civil wars and conflicts with European governments and the USA punctuated the next 30 years. However, Juárez was elected to a third term and is now considered among Mexico’s most popular leaders, having come from a humble background and instituting such welcome changes as a total reform of the education system (making primary school attendance free and obligatory) and completing a railroad from Mexico City to Veracruz. Afterwards, the dictatorship of Porfirio D’az (between 1876 and 1910) brought an autocratic stability to the Republic. Several revolutions and coups followed before the egalitarian 1917 Constitution was introduced which led to the accession of the Partido Revolucionario Institucional (Institutional Revolutionary Party, PRI).
From the 1960s onwards, Mexico developed a largely oil-based economy. Under the government of Lopez Portillo, who was elected President in 1976, the country was brought to the verge of bankruptcy by the negotiation of enormous foreign loans, totalling US$80 billion, borrowed against future oil revenues to finance a massive programme of economic and social development. Corruption and mismanagement, coupled with a collapse in the oil price during that period, precipitated a major political crisis in 1982. This was handled by Lopez Portillo’s successor, Miguel de la Madrid, with limited success in the face of entrenched vested interests.
It was Madrid’s successor, Carlos Salinas de Gortari, who really transformed Mexico during his term of office (which began in 1988). The new government embarked on a major economic reform programme comprising a package of devaluation, tax reform, privatisation and deregulation. The programme, dubbed ‘Cactus Thatcherism’, met with widespread opposition. The programme also included an application to join GATT (the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, forerunner of the World Trade Organisation) and the instigation by Salinas of a free-trade treaty with the USA and Canada. This eventually led to the creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which was ratified by the three countries during 1993.
The Salinas government also improved its standing in Washington by cracking down on drug trafficking. Popular as all this was overseas, Mexicans saw little benefit as living standards for most people fell sharply. The traditional political opposition was all but emasculated by PRI’s stranglehold over the country, but at the beginning of 1994, in the impoverished southern state of Chiapas, an armed insurrection started with land reform at the heart of its aims. The guerrillas described themselves as ‘Zapatistas’ (after Mexican revolutionary hero Emiliano Zapata). The Mexican government initially waged a classic counter-insurgency war, using a mixture of force and incentives on the largely pro-guerrilla peasant population.
This was a problem that Salinas was happy to leave to his successor, Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon, who won the next round of presidential elections held in August 1994. After six years of struggle and bouts of negotiation, the Zapatistas and the Government reached a deal – the San Andreas accord – conceding autonomy to the region. However, nothing was done to implement the deal and the Zapatistas, disillusioned by its duplicity, cut off contact with the Government. By this time, the Zedillo administration had other matters on its mind. Although the economy was performing reasonably well under Zedillo after a major currency crisis early in his term, political discontent with PRI continued to grow throughout the country. Indeed, the popular candidate of the centre-right Partido Acción Nacional (PAN, National Action Party), Vincente Fox Quesada, won the July 2000 presidential poll by a seven-point margin. As PAN also won the simultaneous legislative elections, the rule of the PRI, which had overtaken the Soviet Communist Party longevity record for a ruling political party, was finally at an end after 71 years. After taking office in November, Fox sought a new initiative on the Zapatista conflict and an overhaul of the sclerotic political system inherited from the PRI. While Fox has taken a more conciliatory line towards the Zapatistas (a group of its commanders addressed the Mexican parliament in March 2001) and made initial efforts to put the San Andreas deal into effect, he has been thwarted by PRI and conservative elements in the national assembly.
Government: Mexico is a federal republic with 31 states and one federal district. The bicameral National Congress is elected by universal adult suffrage. The 64 members of the Senate (two per state plus two for the federal district) serve for a term of six years. The 500-seat Chamber of Deputies consists of members elected for three years, 300 from single-member constituencies with the remaining 200 allocated to minority parties on the basis of proportional representation. The President, who appoints a cabinet, has executive power and serves a term congruent with that of the Senate. Each state has its own governor and elected Chamber of Deputies.
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